STM Publishing Group Limited

   STM Publishing Group Limited

Brain and behavior 脑与行为


Manuscripts must be submitted in grammatically correct English. Manuscripts that do not meet this standard cannot be reviewed. Authors for whom English is a second language may wish to consult an English-speaking colleague or consider having their manuscript professionally edited before submission to improve the English. A list of independent suppliers of editing services can be found at All services are paid for and arranged by the author, and use of one of these services does not guarantee acceptance or preference for publication. A manuscript is considered for review and possible publication on the condition that it is submitted solely to Brain and Behavior, and that the manuscript or a substantial portion of it is not under consideration elsewhere.

Informed consent
Brain and Behavior requires that all appropriate steps be taken in obtaining informed consent of any and all human and/or experimental animal subjects participating in the research comprising the manuscript submitted for review and possible publication, and a statement to this effect must be included in the Methods section of the manuscript. Identifying information should not be included in the manuscript unless the information is essential for scientific purposes and the study participants or patients (or parents or guardians) give written informed consent for publication.

Protection of human subjects and animals in research
A statement indicating that the protocol and procedures employed were reviewed and approved by the appropriate institutional review committee must be included in the Methods section of the manuscript. When reporting experiments on human subjects, authors should indicate whether the procedures followed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation (institutional and national) and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 2008. When reporting experiments on animals, authors should indicate whether the institutional and national guide for the care and use of laboratory animals was followed. For research involving recombinant DNA, containment facilities and guidelines should conform to those of the National Institutes of Health or corresponding institutions. For those investigators who do not have formal ethics review committees, the principles outlined in the Helsinki Declaration should be followed. If doubt exists whether the research was conducted in accordance with the Helsinki Declaration, the authors must explain the rationale for their approach and demonstrate that the institutional review body explicitly approved the doubtful aspects of the study.

“Resource Identification Initiative” Pilot
Brain and Behavior is participating in the “Resource Identification Initiative”, which aims to promote research resource identification, discovery, and reuse. This initiative, led by the Neuroscience Information Framework and the Oregon Health & Science University Library, provides unique identifiers for antibodies, model organisms, and tools such as software and databases. These IDs, called Research Resource Identifiers (RRIDs), are machine-readable and can therefore be used to search for all papers in which a particular resource was used and to increase access to critical data to help researchers identify suitable reagents and tools. As part of this pilot project, we ask authors to use RRIDs to cite the resources used in your research where applicable in the text, exactly as you would a regular citation or Genbank Accession number. For antibodies, we ask that you please include in your citation the vendor, catalogue number, and RRID. For software tools and databases, please provide the name of the resource followed by the resource website if available, and the RRID. For model organisms, the RRID alone is sufficient. We also ask that you please include the RIIDs in the list of keywords associated with your manuscript.

To Obtain Research Resource Identifiers (RRIDs):

1. Use the Resource Identification Portal, created by the Resource Identification Initiative Working Group.

2. Search for your research resource (please the section titled “Search Features and Tips” for more information)

3. Click on the “Cite This” button to obtain the citation and insert the citation into your manuscript text.

If you have a resource that is not found within the Portal, we encourage you to register the resource with the appropriate resource authority. Information on how to do this is provided in the “Resource Citation Guidelines” section of the Portal.

If you experience any difficulties obtaining identifiers, please contact for assistance.

For custom data sets and program code, we ask that you obtain a Digital Object Identifier (DOI). Persistent identifiers are assigned to data sets by digital archives, such as institutional repositories and partners in the Data Preservation Alliance for the Social Sciences (Data-PASS).

Example Citations:

Antibodies: “Wnt3 was localized using a rabbit polyclonal antibody C64F2 against Wnt3 (Cell Signaling Technology, Cat# 2721S, RRID: AB_2215411)”

Model Organisms: “Experiments conducted in c. elegans strain SP304 (RRID:CGC_SP304)

Tools/Software/Databases: “Image analysis was conducted with CellProfiler Image Analysis Software, V2.0 (, RRID:nif-0000-00280)

Data, Analytic Methods (Code), and Research Materials Transparency

The policy of Brain and Behavior is to publish papers where authors indicate whether the data, methods used in the analysis, and materials used to conduct the research will be made available to any researcher for purposes of reproducing the results or replicating the procedure.

Authors must, in acknowledgments or the first footnote, indicate if they will or will not make their data, analytic methods, and study materials available to other researchers. If an author agrees to make materials available, the author must specify where that material will be available.

Design and Analysis Transparency

The policy of Brain and Behavior is to publish papers where authors follow standards for disclosing key aspects of the research design and data analysis. Authors are encouraged to review the standards available for many research applications from and use those that are relevant for the reported research applications.

Preregistration of Studies and Analysis Plans

The policy of Brain and Behavior is to publish papers where authors indicate whether or not the conducted research was preregistered with an analysis plan in an independent, institutional registry (e.g.,,,,, Preregistration of studies involves registering the study design, variables, and treatment conditions. Including an analysis plan involves specification of sequence of analyses or the statistical model that will be reported.

1. Authors must, in acknowledgments or the first footnote, indicate if they did or did not preregister the research with or without an analysis plan in an independent, institutional registry.

2. If an author did preregister the research with an analysis plan, the author must:

a. confirm in the text that the study was registered prior to conducting the research with links to the time-stamped preregistrations at the institutional registry, and that the preregistration adheres to the disclosure requirements of the institutional registry or those required for the preregistered badge with analysis plans maintained by the Center for Open Science.

b. report all pre-registered analyses in the text, or, if there were changes in the analysis plan following preregistration, those changes must be disclosed with explanation for the changes.  

c. clearly distinguish in text analyses that were preregistered from those that were not, such as having separate sections in the results for confirmatory and exploratory analyses.


The policy of Brain and Behavior is to encourage submission of replication studies, particularly of research published in this journal.

Conflict of Interest Disclosure:
Brain and Behavior requires that all authors disclose any potential sources of conflict of interest. Any interest or relationship, financial or otherwise, that might be perceived as influencing an author’s objectivity is considered a potential source of conflict of interest. These must be disclosed when directly relevant or indirectly related to the work that the authors describe in their manuscript. Potential sources of conflict of interest include but are not limited to patent or stock ownership, membership of a company board of directors, membership of an advisory board or committee for a company, and consultancy for or receipt of speaker’s fees from a company. If authors are unsure whether a past or present affiliation or relationship should be disclosed in the manuscript, they can query the editorial office at The existence of a conflict of interest does not preclude publication in this journal. If the authors have no conflict of interest to declare, they must also state this at submission.

It is the responsibility of the corresponding author to review this policy with all authors and collectively to list on the cover letter to the Editor-in-Chief, in the manuscript (under the Acknowledgement section), and in the online submission system ALL pertinent commercial and other relationships.

The above policies are in accordance with the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals produced by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (

Manuscript preparation
We place very few restrictions on the way in which you prepare your article, and it is not necessary to try to replicate the layout of the journal in your submission. We ask only that you consider your reviewers by supplying your manuscript in a clear, generic and readable layout, and ensure that all relevant sections are included. Our production process will take care of all aspects of formatting and style. The list below can be used as a checklist to ensure that the manuscript has all the information necessary for successful publication.

ØTitle page, including title, authors’ names, authors’ affiliations, and contact information*

ØStructured abstract and 4–6 keywords

ØText (introduction, materials and methods, results, discussion)

ØLiterature cited (see below for tips on references)

ØTables (may be sent as a separate file if necessary)

ØFigure legends

ØAcknowledgements, including details of funding bodies with grant numbers

*You will be asked to provide the full address information for the corresponding author. Please be sure to do this, as the processing of your manuscript may be delayed without complete address information for the corresponding author.


A structured abstract containing an introduction, methods, results, conclusions, and three keywords is required. For submissions of Commentaries, please use the abstract space to summarize the key points.

Video Abstracts
A video abstract can be a quick way to make the message of your research accessible to a much larger audience. Wiley and its partner Research Square offer a service of professionally produced video abstracts, available to authors of articles accepted in this journal. You can learn more about it at If you have any questions, please direct them to

As with the main body of text, the completeness and content of your reference list is more important than the format chosen. A clear and consistent, generic style will assist the accuracy of our production processes and produce the highest quality published work, but it is not necessary to try to replicate the journal’s own style, which is applied during the production process. If you use bibliographic software to generate your reference list, select a standard output style, and check that it produces full and comprehensive reference listings. A guide to the minimum elements required for successful reference linking appears below. The final journal output will use the ‘APA’ style of reference citation. If your manuscript has already been prepared using the ‘Vancouver’ system, we are quite happy to receive it in this form. We will perform the conversion from one system to the other during the production process.

Minimum reference information

Journal Article
Author(s) in full
Year of publication
Article title
Journal title (preferably not abbreviated)
Volume number
Issue number
Page range

Author(s) in full
Year of publication
Book title
Place of publication
No. Pages

Book Chapter
Author(s) in full
Year of publication
Chapter title
Book Author/Editor
Book title
Place of publication
Page range

Online resources
References to online research articles should always include a DOI, where available. When referring to other Web pages, it is useful to include a date on which the resource was accessed.

All tables must be cited in the text in the order that they should appear.

All figures must be cited in the text in the order that they should appear. Illustrations are an important medium through which to convey the meaning in your article, and there is no substitute for preparing these to the highest possible standard. Therefore, please create your illustrations carefully with reference to our graphics guidelines (see It is very difficult to improve an image that has been saved or created in an inappropriate format. We realize that not everyone has access to high-end graphics software, so the following information may help if you are having difficulty in deciding how to get the best out of the tools at your disposal.

Cover Images: Brain and Behavior encourages you to designate one of the figures in your paper to be considered for the online journal cover and for potential publication on the official Wiley Open Access blog.

1. Check your software options to see if you can ‘save as’ or ‘export’ using one of the robust, industry-standard formats. These are:

ØEncapsulated PostScript (EPS)

ØTagged Image File Format (TIFF)

ØPortable Network Graphics (PNG)

ØPortable Document Format (PDF)

2. As a general rule of thumb, images that contain text and line art (graphs, charts, maps, etc.) will reproduce best if saved as EPS or PDF. If you choose this option, it is important to remember to embed fonts. This ensures that any text reproduces exactly as you intend.

3. Images that contain photographic information are best saved as TIFF or PNG, as this ensures that all data are included in the file. JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group) should be avoided if possible, as information is lost during compression; however, it is acceptable for purely photographic subjects if the image was generated as a JPEG from the outset (many digital cameras, for example, output only in JPEG format).

4. If you are not sure which format would be the best option, it is always best to default to EPS or PDF as these are more likely to preserve the high-quality characteristics of the original.

5. Microsoft Office. If you have generated your images in Microsoft Office software (Word, Excel, PowerPoint), or similar, it is often best simply to send us the files in their native file formats.

6. Please ensure all images are a minimum of 600 dpi.

7. The cover of the journal is editorial material, and as such the editors reserve the right to adapt it during the final design process or ask the authors to make changes to their own suggestion.

Metric System
The metric system should be used for all measurements, weights, etc. Temperatures should be expressed in degrees Celsius (centigrade).