JOURNAL OF ORTHOPAEDIC SCIENCE   骨科学杂志

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Ethics in publishing

Please see our information pages on Ethics in publishing and Ethical guidelines for journal publication.

Manuscript Submission via Editorial Manager

Authors should submit their manuscripts online. Electronic submission substantially reduces the editorial processing and reviewing time and shortens overall publication time. Please go directly to the sitehttp://www.editorialmanager.com/orth and upload all your manuscript files following the instructions given on the screen. Please use the Help option to see the most recently updated system requirements. An outline of the submission process is described in the final section of these instructions.

Submission declaration

Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis or as an electronic preprint, see 'Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication' section of our ethics policy for more information), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere including electronically in the same form, in English or in any other language, without the written consent of the copyright-holder.

Authorship

All authors should have made substantial contributions to all of the following: (1) the conception and design of the study, or acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data, (2) drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content, (3) final approval of the version to be submitted.

Changes to authorship

Authors are expected to consider carefully the list and order of authors beforesubmitting their manuscript and provide the definitive list of authors at the time of the original submission. Any addition, deletion or rearrangement of author names in the authorship list should be made only before the manuscript has been accepted and only if approved by the journal Editor. To request such a change, the Editor must receive the following from the corresponding author: (a) the reason for the change in author list and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed.
Only in exceptional circumstances will the Editor consider the addition, deletion or rearrangement of authors after the manuscript has been accepted. While the Editor considers the request, publication of the manuscript will be suspended. If the manuscript has already been published in an online issue, any requests approved by the Editor will result in a corrigendum.

Copyright

Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' (see more information on this). An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.

Subscribers may reproduce tables of contents or prepare lists of articles including abstracts for internal circulation within their institutions. Permissionof the Publisher is required for resale or distribution outside the institution and for all other derivative works, including compilations and translations. If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the article. Elsevier has preprinted forms for use by authors in these cases.

For open access articles: Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete an 'Exclusive License Agreement' (more information). Permitted third party reuse of open access articles is determined by the author's choice of user license.

Author rights
As an author you (or your employer or institution) have certain rights to reuse your work. More information.

Elsevier supports responsible sharing
Find out how you can share your research published in Elsevier journals.

Role of the funding source

You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated.

Funding body agreements and policies
Elsevier has established a number of agreements with funding bodies which allow authors to comply with their funder's open access policies. Some funding bodies will reimburse the author for the Open Access Publication Fee. Details ofexisting agreements are available online.

Open access

This journal offers authors a choice in publishing their research:

Open access
• Articles are freely available to both subscribers and the wider public with permitted reuse.
• An open access publication fee is payable by authors or on their behalf, e.g. by their research funder or institution.
Subscription
• Articles are made available to subscribers as well as developing countries and patient groups through our universal access programs.
• No open access publication fee payable by authors.

Regardless of how you choose to publish your article, the journal will apply the same peer review criteria and acceptance standards.

For open access articles, permitted third party (re)use is defined by the followingCreative Commons user licenses:

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs (CC BY-NC-ND)
For non-commercial purposes, lets others distribute and copy the article, and to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), as long as they credit the author(s) and provided they do not alter or modify the article.

The open access fee for this journal is $3000, excluding taxes. Learn more about Elsevier's pricing policy: https://www.elsevier.com/openaccesspricing.

Green open access
Authors can share their research in a variety of different ways and Elsevier has a number of green open access options available. We recommend authors see ourgreen open access page for further information. Authors can also self-archive their manuscripts immediately and enable public access from their institution's repository after an embargo period. This is the version that has been accepted for publication and which typically includes author-incorporated changes suggested during submission, peer review and in editor-author communications. Embargo period: For subscription articles, an appropriate amount of time is needed for journals to deliver value to subscribing customers before an article becomes freely available to the public. This is the embargo period and it begins from the date the article is formally published online in its final and fully citable form.Find out more.

This journal has an embargo period of 12 months.

Language (usage and editing services)
Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these). Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's WebShop.

Copyright Agreement and Submission Letter

A copyright agreement signed by all authors and containing the following paragraph must accompany each manuscript: "The undersigned author(s) transfer(s) all copyright ownership of the article entitled [title of article] to the Journal of Orthopaedic Science in the event the work is published. The undersigned author(s) warrant(s) that the article is original, is not under consideration by another journal, and has not been published previously. We sign for and accept responsibility for releasing this material." (This form can be downloaded.http://www.elsevier.com/__data/promis_misc/JOS_Copyright_Agreement.pdf)
When submitting a paper, the author(s) must make a full statement to the editor about all submissions and previous reports that might be regarded as prior or duplicate publication of the same or very similar work. Copies of such material should be included with the submitted paper to help the editor decide how to deal with the matter. A scanned file (PDF, TIFF, or JPEG) of these forms may be uploaded as a file at the time of online submission. Alternatively, they may also be sent to the editorial office by fax, postal mail, or e-mail at the same time you submit your manuscripts via Editorial Manager.
Editorial office:
Takashi Nakamura, MD, PhD, Editor-in-Chief,
The Japanese Orthopaedic Association Secretariat Office,
40-8 Hongo 2-chome, Bunkyo-ku,
Tokyo 113-8418, Japan
Phone +81-3-3816-3671 Fax +81-3-3818-2337
e-mail: kumakura@joa.or.jp
IMPORTANT: Upon receipt of the Copyright Agreement and Submission Letter, manuscripts are officially recognized as submissions.

Instructions for Manuscript Preparation

Manuscripts should be written in English. Authors whose native language is not English should seek the assistance of a colleague who is a native English speaker and familiar with the field of the work. Authors are advised to follow the recommendations in the "Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals: Writing and Editing for Biomedical Publication" proposed by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (http://www.icmje.org).
Manuscripts must be typed double-spaced (not 1.5) with wide margins on A4 paper. The manuscript parts should be in the following order, with each section beginning on a new page: title page, abstract, text, acknowledgments, references, tables, figure captions, and figures. Number all pages in the bottom right corner beginning with the title page.
For reports on randomized control studies, authors should refer to the CONSORT statement (http://www.consort-statement.org).

Double-blind submission

Because this journal follows a double-blind review policy, author information should not be included in the main document. Authors should submit the title page, the main document, and the acknowledgments separately. In order to allow a completely blinded peer review, the Journal of Orthopaedic Science requests that authors not include in the abstract or text the name or initials of the authors or the institution at which the study was performed. Refer to your own published work in the third person. Use "In the previous work of Author name et al. [2]", not "In our previous work [2]."

Title Page

The title should be concise but sufficiently informative to make electronic retrieval of the manuscript both effective and specific. Include important information such as the study design, i.e., clinical or basic, and in particular indicate if the study is a randomized control trial. The page should contain the article title, the full names of the authors including only major qualification such as M.D. or Ph.D., and the complete postal address of the department and institution where the work was done. Designate one author as a correspondent and supply his or her complete postal address, telephone number, fax number, and e-mail address.

Main Document

The main document should be organized as follows: abstract, text, references, and figure captions.

Abstract
The abstract should be structured and contain no more than 300 words. Please bear in mind that the abstract and the title form the substantively informative portion of the article for purposes of indexing on electronic databases. The structured abstract should consist of four paragraphs: Background (including a clear description of the primary interest, purpose and context of the research), Methods, Results, and Conclusions. The abstract should be typed on a separate page, and should not include abbreviations, footnotes, or references. No abstract is needed for a case report.

Text
The length of the text and references should not exceed 15 pages of double-spaced type. The number of figures and tables together should not exceed 20. The text of the article is usually, but not necessarily, divided into sections with the headings Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, and Discussion. Long articles may need section subheadings to clarify their content. Do not repeat in the text all data that appear in the tables or illustrations; emphasize or summarize only important observations. A conclusion may be included in the summary paragraph of the Discussion only if it is not redundant.

Ethics
It is the responsibility of the authors to assure that all clinical investigations detailed in manuscripts submitted to the Journal of Orthopaedic Science are conducted in accordance with The Code of Ethics of the World Medical Association (Declaration of Helsinki) for experiments involving humanshttp://www.wma.net/en/30publications/10policies/b3/index.html; EU Directive 2010/63/EU for animal experimentshttp://ec.europa.eu/environment/chemicals/lab_animals/legislation_en.htm; Uniform Requirements for manuscripts submitted to Biomedical journalshttp://www.icmje.org. All case reports must include a statement indicating that informed consent has been obtained from the patient or appropriate persons for publication, including any necessary photographs. An example of such a statement would be "The patients and/or their families were informed that data from the case would be submitted for publication, and gave their consent." Do not use patients' names, initials, institutional ID numbers, or other identifying information. Articles, including their study design, originating from a particular institution are assumed to be submitted with the approval of the requisite authority on ethical issues. Articles describing research involving human subjects must include a statement in the Materials and Methods section indicating that approval was given by the institutional review board (IRB) and that informed consent was obtained from each patient or candidate. Manuscripts reporting animal experiments must include a statement in the Materials and Methods section indicating that approval was obtained from the institutional review board and that animal care complied with the guidelines of the authors' institution or any national law on the care and use of laboratory animals. If the submitted manuscript describes original nucleotide sequence data, these data should be submitted to GenBank (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Genbank) by the authors, and the accession number should be included in the submitted manuscript.

Statistics
Statistical methods should be described with sufficient detail to enable a knowledgeable reader with access to the original data to verify the reported results. When possible, quantify findings and present them with appropriate indicators of measurement error or uncertainty (such as confidence intervals).

References
Authors are responsible for verifying the accuracy and completeness of the references. The number of references should not exceed 30. The style of the references should follow the MEDLINE/PubMed Journal Article Citation Format found at the National Center for Bibliography Information [NCBI] Web site (http://www.nlm.nih.gov/bsd/policy/cit_format.html), where specific reference citations can be searched for.
If a non-English-language reference is listed, the original language should be indicated, as shown in the following sample:

Journal article not in English
Otani T, Hayashi S, Ueno Y, Hayashi H, Kato T, Tamegai H, Fujii K. Long-term radiographic evaluation of muscle release operation for arthritis of the hip: comparison study between the results of muscle release and the natural history of osteoarthritis. Rinshou Seikeigeka (Clinical Orthopaedic Surgery) 2004;39:921–6 (in Japanese).

The list of references should be numbered according to the sequence of citation in the text. References should be cited in the text by numbers in squire brackets. Abbreviations of journal names must conform to those used in MEDLINE/PubMed.
Avoid using abstracts as references. In the references, do not list personal communications and unpublished material (including oral and poster presentations and manuscripts not yet accepted for publication). If critical to the manuscript's message, written personal communications and other unpublished material may be cited in the text and referenced in parentheses. Include with the submitted manuscript signed verification from the originator of any personal communication.

Figure captions
Figure captions (not exceeding 40 words per caption) should be typed double-spaced on a separate page. Do not use a separate page for each caption. All abbreviations should be defined at first use, even if already defined in the text. All characters and symbols appearing in the figure should also be defined.

Conflict-of-Interset Policy
All authors are expected to disclose any commercial affiliations as well as consultancies, stock ownership, or patent-licensing arrangements that could be considered to pose a conflict of interest regarding the submitted article. If there are no conflicts of interest then please state this: 'Conflicts of interest: none'. See also http://www.elsevier.com/conflictsofinterest. Further information can be found at:http://service.elsevier.com/app/answers/detail/a_id/286/supporthub/publishing. Please download ICMJE Conflict of Interest Statement from the online manuscript submission system, Editorial Manager, and upload the completed forms during online submission. The signature of all authors is required.

Tables
Tables should be given a brief, informative title and numbered consecutively in the order of their citation in the text. Type each table double-spaced on a separate page. Use the table function, not spreadsheets, to make tables. Tables must be no larger than a single sheet of A4 paper. The table number and title should appear above the table, and the definition of all abbreviations, levels of statistical significance, and additional information should appear below the table.

Figures
Figures should be cited consecutively in the text. Include an internal scale in any micrographs or provide the magnification in the caption. Professionally produced arrows should be used to highlight the photograph’s message and the illustration should be of a professional standard. If photographs of persons are used, either the subjects must not be identifiable or the subject's or guardian's written permission to use the photograph must accompany the manuscript. When submitting a figure that has appeared elsewhere, give full information about previous publication and the credits to be included, and submit the written permission of the author and the publisher. The previously published source should also be included in the list of references.

Artwork

Electronic artwork
General points
• Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
• Embed the used fonts if the application provides that option.
• Aim to use the following fonts in your illustrations: Arial, Courier, Times New Roman, Symbol, or use fonts that look similar.
• Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
• Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
• Provide captions to illustrations separately.
• Size the illustrations close to the desired dimensions of the published version.
• Submit each illustration as a separate file.
A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available.
You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information are given here.
Formats
If your electronic artwork is created in a Microsoft Office application (Word, PowerPoint, Excel) then please supply 'as is' in the native document format.
Regardless of the application used other than Microsoft Office, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please 'Save as' or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):
EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings, embed all used fonts.
TIFF (or JPEG): Color or grayscale photographs (halftones), keep to a minimum of 300 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Bitmapped (pure black & white pixels) line drawings, keep to a minimum of 1000 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale), keep to a minimum of 500 dpi.
Please do not:
• Supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.g., GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); these typically have a low number of pixels and limited set of colors;
• Supply files that are too low in resolution;
• Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.

Color artwork
Please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format (TIFF (or JPEG), EPS (or PDF), or MS Office files) and with the correct resolution. If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable color figures then Elsevier will ensure, at no additional charge, that these figures will appear in color online (e.g., ScienceDirect and other sites) regardless of whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in color in the printed version. For color reproduction in print, you will receive information regarding the costs from Elsevier after receipt of your accepted article. Please indicate your preference for color: in print or online only. Further information on the preparation of electronic artwork.

Illustration services
Elsevier's WebShop offers Illustration Services to authors preparing to submit a manuscript but concerned about the quality of the images accompanying their article. Elsevier's expert illustrators can produce scientific, technical and medical-style images, as well as a full range of charts, tables and graphs. Image 'polishing' is also available, where our illustrators take your image(s) and improve them to a professional standard. Please visit the website to find out more.

Data references
This journal encourages you to cite underlying or relevant datasets in your manuscript by citing them in your text and including a data reference in your Reference List. Data references should include the following elements: author name(s), dataset title, data repository, version (where available), year, and global persistent identifier. Add [dataset] immediately before the reference so we can properly identify it as a data reference. The [dataset] identifier will not appear in your published article.

Special Features

Invited Articles
Invited articles such as Editorials, Invited Reviews, and Instructional Lectures should be submitted through Editorial Manager. The submission process is described below. Details of manuscript preparation are described in the letter of invitation sent by the Editor-in-Chief.

Rapid Short Communications
Concise articles of a very notable and original nature may be submitted as Rapid Short Communications. The length of the text, acknowledgments, and references should not exceed six double-spaced pages (two printed pages). An abstract is not required. One figure and/or a table may be included in this type of article. The criterion for acceptance is rigid; if extensive revision is required, the submission will lose its rapid communication status.

Case Reports
Case Reports will be considered for publication if they contribute to an understanding of the diagnosis, treatment, and/or pathogenesis of diseases related to orthopedic surgery, although, the acceptance ratio of case report is low comparing to that of original article. Manuscripts should include the headings Introduction, Report of the case, and Discussion. Do not forget to clearly indicate that consent for publication has been obtained from the patient or his/her nearest relative.

Review Articles
These are commissioned, authors are invited to contribute review article by the editor.

Letters to the Editor
Letters to the Editor on published articles of sufficient interest will be considered for publication. Letters should be typed double-spaced and limited to 1000 words. A copy of the letter will be sent to the previous article’s author(s) to invite a response.

Editorial Policies

Statements and opinions expressed in articles and communications are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the editor or the publisher. The editor and publisher disclaim any responsibility or liability for such material.

Video

Elsevier accepts video material and animation sequences to support and enhance your scientific research. Authors who have video or animation files that they wish to submit with their article are strongly encouraged to include links to these within the body of the article. This can be done in the same way as a figure or table by referring to the video or animation content and noting in the body text where it should be placed. All submitted files should be properly labeled so that they directly relate to the video file's content. In order to ensure that your video or animation material is directly usable, please provide the files in one of our recommended file formats with a preferred maximum size of 150 MB. Video and animation files supplied will be published online in the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect. Please supply 'stills' with your files: you can choose any frame from the video or animation or make a separate image. These will be used instead of standard icons and will personalize the link to your video data. For more detailed instructions please visit our video instruction pages. Note: since video and animation cannot be embedded in the print version of the journal, please provide text for both the electronic and the print version for the portions of the article that refer to this content.

Supplementary material

Supplementary material such as applications, images and sound clips, can be published with your article to enhance it. Submitted supplementary items are published exactly as they are received (Excel or PowerPoint files will appear as such online). Please submit your material together with the article and supply a concise, descriptive caption for each supplementary file. If you wish to make changes to supplementary material during any stage of the process, please make sure to provide an updated file. Do not annotate any corrections on a previous version. Please switch off the 'Track Changes' option in Microsoft Office files as these will appear in the published version.